City on the right bank of the Danube (q.v.) that Justinian I (q.v.) refurbished and that helped to defend Byzantium's (q.v.) northern frontier. It was conquered by the Bulgars (q.v.), recaptured by John I Tzimikes in 971, and, after the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria (q.v.) in 1018, it was the chief city of the region of Paristrion (or Paradounavis). In the 11th century the Pechenegs (q.v.) captured it, Alexios I Komnenos (q.v.) recaptured it, and in 1186 it was incorporated into the Second Bulgarian Empire. It surrendered to the Ottomans (q.v.) in 1388.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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